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Next Page. About RF. Christmas is a pinnacle feast, yes, but it is not the beginning of the liturgical year. It is a memorial, a remembrance, of the birth of Jesus, not really a celebration of the day itself.

We remember that because the Jesus of history was born, the Resurrection of the Christ of faith could happen. Archived from the original on April 7, The origins of the celebrations of Christmas and Epiphany, as well as the dates on which they are observed, are rooted deeply in the history of the early church.

There has been much scholarly debate concerning the exact time of the year when Jesus was born, and even in what year he was born.

Actually, we do not know either. The best estimate is that Jesus was probably born in the springtime, somewhere between the years of 6 and 4 BC, as December is in the middle of the cold rainy season in Bethlehem , when the sheep are kept inside and not on pasture as told in the Bible.

The lack of a consistent system of timekeeping in the first century, mistakes in later calendars and calculations, and lack of historical details to cross-reference events have led to this imprecision in fixing Jesus' birth.

This suggests that the Christmas celebration is not an observance of a historical date, but a commemoration of the event in terms of worship.

Harvard University. Throughout the Christian world the 25th of December is celebrated as the birthday of Jesus Christ.

There was a time when the churches were not united regarding the date of the joyous event.

Many Christians kept their Christmas in April, others in May, and still others at the close of September, till finally December 25 was agreed upon as the most appropriate date.

The choice of that day was, of course, wholly arbitrary, for neither the exact date not the period of the year at which the birth of Christ occurred is known.

For purposes of commemoration, however, it is unimportant whether the celebration shall fall or not at the precise anniversary of the joyous event.

West Publishing Company. While the Washington and King birthdays are exclusively secular holidays, Christmas has both secular and religious aspects.

Associated Press. December 22, Retrieved December 24, God's human face: the Christ-icon. Sinai and the Monastery of St. Retrieved December BBC News.

Archived from the original on November 11, Retrieved December 12, Oxford University Press. A History of Foreign Words in English.

Archived from the original on January 13, Retrieved December 13, January 22, New Catholic Encyclopedia. Catholic University of America Press.

Part Commemorations of the Martyrs. Archived February 21, , at the Wayback Machine. See the first entry.

The Oxford History of Christian Worship. Retrieved February 3, Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia.

Archived from the original on January 11, Archived from the original on September 23, Retrieved December 27, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics.

Kessinger Publishing Company. Archived from the original on November 22, Towards the Origin of Christmas. Kok Pharos Publishing. Archived from the original on December 31, Retrieved December 25, John Archived September 18, , at the Wayback Machine A sun connection is possible because Christians considered Jesus to be the "Sun of righteousness" prophesied in Malachi "But for you who fear my name, the sun of righteousness shall rise with healing in its wings.

You shall go out leaping like calves from the stall. Biblical Archaeology Society. Archived from the original on December 14, Retrieved February 24, Therefore let us celebrate the festival Historical Dictionary of Catholicism.

Retrieved December 23, The Origins of Christmas. Liturgical Press. Online here [1] Archived February 19, , at the Wayback Machine. Yale, p.

Roll, Susan K. Archived from the original on November 2, Retrieved June 20, Archived from the original on December 11, Retrieved November 17, In: Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen , part 1.

Second edition. Note that the first edition, , doesn't have the discussion of Natalis Solis Invicti ; also Sol Invictus The Origins of the Liturgical Year.

The Sun in the Art and Religions of Rome. Archived from the original on May 10, Westerfield The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought.

January , pp. Retrieved September 10, Christmas in America: a History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. History Today. Archived from the original on December 29, Retrieved December 28, There is no doubt that A Christmas Carol is first and foremost a story concerned with the Christian gospel of liberation by the grace of God, and with incarnational religion which refuses to drive a wedge between the world of spirit and the world of matter.

Both the Christmas dinners and the Christmas dinner-carriers are blessed; the cornucopia of Christmas food and feasting reflects both the goodness of creation and the joy of heaven.

It is a significant sign of a shift in theological emphasis in the nineteenth century from a stress on the Atonement to a stress on the Incarnation, a stress which found outward and visible form in the sacramentalism of the Oxford Movement, the development of richer and more symbolic forms of worship, the building of neo-Gothic churches, and the revival and increasing centrality of the keeping of Christmas itself as a Christian festival.

In the course of the century, under the influence of the Oxford Movement's concern for the better observance of Christian festivals, Christmas became more and more prominent.

By the later part of the century cathedrals provided special services and musical events, and might have revived ancient special charities for the poor — though we must not forget the problems for large: parish-church cathedrals like Manchester, which on one Christmas Day had no less than eighty couples coming to be married the signing of the registers lasted until four in the afternoon.

The popularity of Dickens' A Christmas Carol played a significant part in the changing consciousness of Christmas and the way in which it was celebrated.

The popularity of his public readings of the story is an indication of how much it resonated with the contemporary mood, and contributed to the increasing place of the Christmas celebration in both secular and religious ways that was firmly established by the end of the nineteenth century.

January 11, January 1, John Milton. University Press of Kentucky. Milton was raised an Anglican, trained to become an Anglican minister, and remained an Anglican through the signing of the subscription books of Cambridge University in both and , which demanded an allegiance to the state church and its Thirty-nine Articles.

His father had wanted him to practice law but Milton considered writing poetry his life's work. At 21 years old, he wrote a poem, "On the morning of Christ's Nativity," a work that is still widely read during Christmas.

Christmas: Festival of Incarnation. Worship: Reformed According to Scripture. Westminster John Knox Press.

Within a few years the Reformed church calendar was fairly well established. The heart of it was the weekly observance of the resurrection on the Lord's Day.

Instead of liturgical seasons being observed, "the five evangelical feast days" were observed: Christmas, Good Friday, Easter, Ascension, and Pentecost.

They were chosen because they were understood to mark the essential stages in the history of salvation. Journal of the History of Ideas.

However, when Thomas Mocket, rector of Gilston in Hertfordshire, decried such vices in a pamphlet to justify the parliamentary 'ban' of Christmas, effective since June Christmastide: its history, festivities and carols.

London: John Russell Smith. Domestic Annals of Scotland , p. The Records of the Parliaments of Scotland to Archived from the original on May 19, Retrieved February 29, Scotland: a very short introduction.

Very short introductions. The Victorian Christmas Book. The Diary of a Country Parson — Ayer Publishing. Merry Christmas!

Harvard University Press. Moravian Christmas in the South. Christmas in Colonial and Early America. World Book Encyclopedia.

Carols were altered by substituting names of prominent political leaders for royal characters in the lyrics, such as the Three Kings.

Church bells were melted down for their bronze to increase the national treasury, and religious services were banned on Christmas Day.

The cake of kings, too, came under attack as a symbol of royalty. It survived, however, for a while with a new name—the cake of equality.

Archived from the original on November 1, How did people celebrate the Christmas during the French Revolution?

In white-knuckled terror behind closed doors. Churches across France were renamed "Temples of Reason" and the Notre Dame was "de-baptized" for the occasion.

The Commune spared no expense: "The first festival of reason, which took place in Notre Dame, featured a fabricated mountain, with a temple of philosophy at its summit and a script borrowed from an opera libretto.

TUC press release. Archived from the original PDF on June 3, USA Today. Archived from the original on November 6, Retrieved April 30, What Dickens did advocate in his story was "the spirit of Christmas".

Sociologist James Barnett has described it as Dickens's "Carol Philosophy", which "combined religious and secular attitudes toward to celebration into a humanitarian pattern.

It excoriated individual selfishness and extolled the virtues of brotherhood, kindness, and generosity at Christmas. Dickens preached that at Christmas men should forget self and think of others, especially the poor and the unfortunate.

A Christmas Carol. Broadview Press. Wordplay: origins, meanings, and usage of the English language. University of Toronto Press, , p.

Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. Christmas in My Heart , Volume 10, p. Review and Herald Pub Assoc, Inverloch Historical Society Inc.

Archived from the original on May 26, Retrieved July 25, University of Wisconsin. Compendium of symbolic and ritual plants in Europe , p.

Edition Stackpole Books Godey's copied it exactly, except he removed the Queen's tiara, and Prince Albert's moustache, to remake the engraving into an American scene.

Archived from the original on December 19, A History of Graphic Design. Straus November 16, Congressional Research Service.

Archived PDF from the original on January 3, Retrieved January 2, Christmas Past. London: Sidgwick and Jackson.

London: Metro Publishing. The Guardian. Archived from the original on October 6, Retrieved October 23, A chapter on representations of Christmas in Soviet cinema could, in fact be the shortest in this collection: suffice it to say that there were, at least officially, no Christmas celebrations in the atheist socialist state after its foundation in Religious Policy in the Soviet Union.

Cambridge University Press. The League sallied forth to save the day from this putative religious revival.

Antireligioznik obliged with so many articles that it devoted an entire section of its annual index for to anti-religious training in the schools.

More such material followed in , and a flood of it the next year. It recommended what Lenin and others earlier had explicitly condemned—carnivals, farces, and games to intimidate and purge the youth of religious belief.

It suggested that pupils campaign against customs associated with Christmas including Christmas trees and Easter. Some schools, the League approvingly reported, staged an anti-religious day on the 31st of each month.

Not teachers but the League's local set the programme for this special occasion. Syracuse University Press. As observed by Nicholas Brianchaninov, writing in —, after the NEP and just as the worst of collectivization was beginning, the Soviets deemed it necessary to drive into the heads of the people the axiom that religion was the synthesis of everything most harmful to humanity.

It must be presented as the enemy of man and society, of life and learning, of progress. In caricatures, articles, Bezbozhnik , Antireligioznik , League of Militant Atheists propaganda and films.

School courses [were give] on conducting the struggle against religion how to profane a church, break windows, objects of piety.

The young, always eager to be with the latest trend, often responded to such propaganda. In Moscow in children were brought to spit on the crucifixes at Christmas.

Priests in Tiraspol diocese were sometimes betrayed by their own young parishioners, leading to their imprisonment and even death, and tearing their families apart.

But, as with most of Yeltsin's pronouncements, the holiday stirs a controversy". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 22, Retrieved November 22, For the first time in more than seven decades, Christmas—celebrated today by Russian Orthodox Christians—is a full state holiday across Russia's vast and snowy expanse.

Yeltsin's ambitious plan to revive the traditions of Old Russia, the republic's legislature declared last month that Christmas, long ignored under atheist Communist ideology, should be written back into the public calendar.

Polosin, head of the Russian legislature's committee on religion. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 6, Retrieved March 11, The Daily Telegraph.

Archived from the original on May 29, Retrieved April 4, June 21, A History of Denmark. Macmillan International Higher Education.

It is quite normal to go to church on Christmas Eve, and many people like to celebrate a christening or wedding in church.

The Church is especially important at the end of a life; by far the majority of funerals are still conducted in a church by a minister.

The United Methodist Church. Retrieved December 9, Christianity Today. Archived from the original on January 29, Archived from the original on December 27, January 24, November 26, Archived from the original on September 14, Italy Magazine.

Stories Behind the Great Traditions of Christmas. Retrieved December 2, The Christmas tree as we know it seemed to emerge in Lutheran lands in Germany in the sixteenth century.

Although no specific city or town has been identified as the first to have a Christmas tree, records for the Cathedral of Strassburg indicate that a Christmas tree was set up in that church in during Martin Bucer's superintendency.

Lutheran Spokesman. The Christmas tree became a widespread custom among German Lutherans by the eighteenth century.

The Feast of Christmas. German Lutherans brought the decorated Christmas tree with them; the Moravians put lighted candles on those trees.

A Short History of Christianity. Many Lutherans continued to set up a small fir tree as their Christmas tree, and it must have been a seasonal sight in Bach's Leipzig at a time when it was virtually unknown in England, and little known in those farmlands of North America where Lutheran immigrants congregated.

Canadian Christmas Traditions. The eight-pointed star became a popular manufactured Christmas ornament around the s and many people place a star on the top of their Christmas tree to represent the Star of Bethlehem.

The School Journal. Christmas is the occasional of family reunions. Grandmother always has the place of honor. As the time approaches for enjoying the tree, she gathers her grandchildren about her, to tell them the story of the Christ child, with the meaning of the Christ child, with the meaning of the Christmas tree; how the evergreen is meant to represent the life everlasting, the candle lights to recall the light of the world, and the star at the top of the tree is to remind them of the star of Bethlehem.

The same ambiguity is seen in that most familiar of angels, the angel on top of the Christmas tree. This decoration, popularized in the nineteenth century, recalls the place of the angels in the Christmas story Luke 2.

When Santa was a shaman. Paul: Llewellyn Publications , Lowe His biographer, Eddius Stephanus, relates that while Boniface was serving as a missionary near Geismar, Germany, he had enough of the locals' reverence for the old gods.

Taking an axe to an oak tree dedicated to Norse god Thor, Boniface chopped the tree down and dared Thor to zap him for it.

When nothing happened, Boniface pointed out a young fir tree amid the roots of the oak and explained how this tree was a more fitting object of reverence as it pointed towards the Christian heaven and its triangular shape was reminiscent of the Christian trinity.

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Merry Christmas 2019 - Top Christmas Songs Playlist 2019 - Best Christmas Songs Ever keithmiddlebrook.co We thank you for your trust and wish you a Merry Christmas and​. 2,58 млн оценок. Скачайте. Источник: keithmiddlebrook.co Подробнее Ein frohes Fest! Mery Xmas! Find this Pin and more on Perao other by Perao. technischen Lösungen fürs Haus und Büro Haus, Lavalampe, Tischlampe, Weihnachtsschmuck. Quelle: keithmiddlebrook.co Mehr dazu. Ein frohes Fest! Mery Xmas! technischen Lösungen fürs Haus und Büro Haus, Lavalampe, Tischlampe, Weihnachtsschmuck. Quelle: keithmiddlebrook.co Mehr dazu. Ein frohes Fest! Mery Xmas! Mery Xmas Foto & Bild von Wilhelm Bischoff ᐅ Das Foto jetzt kostenlos bei keithmiddlebrook.co anschauen & bewerten. Entdecke hier weitere. Von ShyneR. Bist du sicher, dass du diesen Kommentar sowie alle zugehörigen Antworten löschen möchtest? Winterlaub in Kohle Black Sticker. Rudolf Himmelrath Wir werden uns zeitnah darum kümmern. Von milibadic. Tags: tolles jahrfrohe weihnachten, happy nye, frohe feiertagefrohes neues jahr, gutes neues jahrsehr frohe weihnachten, glückliches navidad, neujahrs, heilige jahreszeit, schöne feiertage, gutes neues jahr, weihnachten go here, fröhliche weihnachten, gutes jahr, neues jahrweihnachten schneemann,schneemann, rot, orange, kalligraphie, kalligraphisch, mmxix, schöne ferien. Klaus-Peter Beck Von noras Zurück zur Liste Zum Thema.

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Vector Vector. Archived from the original on April 7, The origins of the celebrations of Christmas and Epiphany, as well as the dates on which they are observed, are rooted deeply in the history of the early church.

There has been much scholarly debate concerning the exact time of the year when Jesus was born, and even in what year he was born. Actually, we do not know either.

The best estimate is that Jesus was probably born in the springtime, somewhere between the years of 6 and 4 BC, as December is in the middle of the cold rainy season in Bethlehem , when the sheep are kept inside and not on pasture as told in the Bible.

The lack of a consistent system of timekeeping in the first century, mistakes in later calendars and calculations, and lack of historical details to cross-reference events have led to this imprecision in fixing Jesus' birth.

This suggests that the Christmas celebration is not an observance of a historical date, but a commemoration of the event in terms of worship.

Harvard University. Throughout the Christian world the 25th of December is celebrated as the birthday of Jesus Christ.

There was a time when the churches were not united regarding the date of the joyous event. Many Christians kept their Christmas in April, others in May, and still others at the close of September, till finally December 25 was agreed upon as the most appropriate date.

The choice of that day was, of course, wholly arbitrary, for neither the exact date not the period of the year at which the birth of Christ occurred is known.

For purposes of commemoration, however, it is unimportant whether the celebration shall fall or not at the precise anniversary of the joyous event.

West Publishing Company. While the Washington and King birthdays are exclusively secular holidays, Christmas has both secular and religious aspects.

Associated Press. December 22, Retrieved December 24, God's human face: the Christ-icon. Sinai and the Monastery of St.

Retrieved December BBC News. Archived from the original on November 11, Retrieved December 12, Oxford University Press.

A History of Foreign Words in English. Archived from the original on January 13, Retrieved December 13, January 22, New Catholic Encyclopedia.

Catholic University of America Press. Part Commemorations of the Martyrs. Archived February 21, , at the Wayback Machine. See the first entry.

The Oxford History of Christian Worship. Retrieved February 3, Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia.

Archived from the original on January 11, Archived from the original on September 23, Retrieved December 27, Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics.

Kessinger Publishing Company. Archived from the original on November 22, Towards the Origin of Christmas.

Kok Pharos Publishing. Archived from the original on December 31, Retrieved December 25, John Archived September 18, , at the Wayback Machine A sun connection is possible because Christians considered Jesus to be the "Sun of righteousness" prophesied in Malachi "But for you who fear my name, the sun of righteousness shall rise with healing in its wings.

You shall go out leaping like calves from the stall. Biblical Archaeology Society. Archived from the original on December 14, Retrieved February 24, Therefore let us celebrate the festival Historical Dictionary of Catholicism.

Retrieved December 23, The Origins of Christmas. Liturgical Press. Online here [1] Archived February 19, , at the Wayback Machine.

Yale, p. Roll, Susan K. Archived from the original on November 2, Retrieved June 20, Archived from the original on December 11, Retrieved November 17, In: Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen , part 1.

Second edition. Note that the first edition, , doesn't have the discussion of Natalis Solis Invicti ; also Sol Invictus The Origins of the Liturgical Year.

The Sun in the Art and Religions of Rome. Archived from the original on May 10, Westerfield The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought. January , pp.

Retrieved September 10, Christmas in America: a History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. History Today.

Archived from the original on December 29, Retrieved December 28, There is no doubt that A Christmas Carol is first and foremost a story concerned with the Christian gospel of liberation by the grace of God, and with incarnational religion which refuses to drive a wedge between the world of spirit and the world of matter.

Both the Christmas dinners and the Christmas dinner-carriers are blessed; the cornucopia of Christmas food and feasting reflects both the goodness of creation and the joy of heaven.

It is a significant sign of a shift in theological emphasis in the nineteenth century from a stress on the Atonement to a stress on the Incarnation, a stress which found outward and visible form in the sacramentalism of the Oxford Movement, the development of richer and more symbolic forms of worship, the building of neo-Gothic churches, and the revival and increasing centrality of the keeping of Christmas itself as a Christian festival.

In the course of the century, under the influence of the Oxford Movement's concern for the better observance of Christian festivals, Christmas became more and more prominent.

By the later part of the century cathedrals provided special services and musical events, and might have revived ancient special charities for the poor — though we must not forget the problems for large: parish-church cathedrals like Manchester, which on one Christmas Day had no less than eighty couples coming to be married the signing of the registers lasted until four in the afternoon.

The popularity of Dickens' A Christmas Carol played a significant part in the changing consciousness of Christmas and the way in which it was celebrated.

The popularity of his public readings of the story is an indication of how much it resonated with the contemporary mood, and contributed to the increasing place of the Christmas celebration in both secular and religious ways that was firmly established by the end of the nineteenth century.

January 11, January 1, John Milton. University Press of Kentucky. Milton was raised an Anglican, trained to become an Anglican minister, and remained an Anglican through the signing of the subscription books of Cambridge University in both and , which demanded an allegiance to the state church and its Thirty-nine Articles.

His father had wanted him to practice law but Milton considered writing poetry his life's work. At 21 years old, he wrote a poem, "On the morning of Christ's Nativity," a work that is still widely read during Christmas.

Christmas: Festival of Incarnation. Worship: Reformed According to Scripture. Westminster John Knox Press. Within a few years the Reformed church calendar was fairly well established.

The heart of it was the weekly observance of the resurrection on the Lord's Day. Instead of liturgical seasons being observed, "the five evangelical feast days" were observed: Christmas, Good Friday, Easter, Ascension, and Pentecost.

They were chosen because they were understood to mark the essential stages in the history of salvation.

Journal of the History of Ideas. However, when Thomas Mocket, rector of Gilston in Hertfordshire, decried such vices in a pamphlet to justify the parliamentary 'ban' of Christmas, effective since June Christmastide: its history, festivities and carols.

London: John Russell Smith. Domestic Annals of Scotland , p. The Records of the Parliaments of Scotland to Archived from the original on May 19, Retrieved February 29, Scotland: a very short introduction.

Very short introductions. The Victorian Christmas Book. The Diary of a Country Parson — Ayer Publishing.

Merry Christmas! Harvard University Press. Moravian Christmas in the South. Christmas in Colonial and Early America.

World Book Encyclopedia. Carols were altered by substituting names of prominent political leaders for royal characters in the lyrics, such as the Three Kings.

Church bells were melted down for their bronze to increase the national treasury, and religious services were banned on Christmas Day.

The cake of kings, too, came under attack as a symbol of royalty. It survived, however, for a while with a new name—the cake of equality.

Archived from the original on November 1, How did people celebrate the Christmas during the French Revolution? In white-knuckled terror behind closed doors.

Churches across France were renamed "Temples of Reason" and the Notre Dame was "de-baptized" for the occasion.

The Commune spared no expense: "The first festival of reason, which took place in Notre Dame, featured a fabricated mountain, with a temple of philosophy at its summit and a script borrowed from an opera libretto.

TUC press release. Archived from the original PDF on June 3, USA Today. Archived from the original on November 6, Retrieved April 30, What Dickens did advocate in his story was "the spirit of Christmas".

Sociologist James Barnett has described it as Dickens's "Carol Philosophy", which "combined religious and secular attitudes toward to celebration into a humanitarian pattern.

It excoriated individual selfishness and extolled the virtues of brotherhood, kindness, and generosity at Christmas.

Dickens preached that at Christmas men should forget self and think of others, especially the poor and the unfortunate. A Christmas Carol.

Broadview Press. Wordplay: origins, meanings, and usage of the English language. University of Toronto Press, , p.

Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. Christmas in My Heart , Volume 10, p. Review and Herald Pub Assoc, Inverloch Historical Society Inc.

Archived from the original on May 26, Retrieved July 25, University of Wisconsin. Compendium of symbolic and ritual plants in Europe , p.

Edition Stackpole Books Godey's copied it exactly, except he removed the Queen's tiara, and Prince Albert's moustache, to remake the engraving into an American scene.

Archived from the original on December 19, A History of Graphic Design. Straus November 16, Congressional Research Service.

Archived PDF from the original on January 3, Retrieved January 2, Christmas Past. London: Sidgwick and Jackson.

London: Metro Publishing. The Guardian. Archived from the original on October 6, Retrieved October 23, A chapter on representations of Christmas in Soviet cinema could, in fact be the shortest in this collection: suffice it to say that there were, at least officially, no Christmas celebrations in the atheist socialist state after its foundation in Religious Policy in the Soviet Union.

Cambridge University Press. The League sallied forth to save the day from this putative religious revival. Antireligioznik obliged with so many articles that it devoted an entire section of its annual index for to anti-religious training in the schools.

More such material followed in , and a flood of it the next year. It recommended what Lenin and others earlier had explicitly condemned—carnivals, farces, and games to intimidate and purge the youth of religious belief.

It suggested that pupils campaign against customs associated with Christmas including Christmas trees and Easter. Some schools, the League approvingly reported, staged an anti-religious day on the 31st of each month.

Not teachers but the League's local set the programme for this special occasion. Syracuse University Press.

As observed by Nicholas Brianchaninov, writing in —, after the NEP and just as the worst of collectivization was beginning, the Soviets deemed it necessary to drive into the heads of the people the axiom that religion was the synthesis of everything most harmful to humanity.

It must be presented as the enemy of man and society, of life and learning, of progress. In caricatures, articles, Bezbozhnik , Antireligioznik , League of Militant Atheists propaganda and films.

School courses [were give] on conducting the struggle against religion how to profane a church, break windows, objects of piety. The young, always eager to be with the latest trend, often responded to such propaganda.

In Moscow in children were brought to spit on the crucifixes at Christmas. Priests in Tiraspol diocese were sometimes betrayed by their own young parishioners, leading to their imprisonment and even death, and tearing their families apart.

But, as with most of Yeltsin's pronouncements, the holiday stirs a controversy". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 22, Retrieved November 22, For the first time in more than seven decades, Christmas—celebrated today by Russian Orthodox Christians—is a full state holiday across Russia's vast and snowy expanse.

Yeltsin's ambitious plan to revive the traditions of Old Russia, the republic's legislature declared last month that Christmas, long ignored under atheist Communist ideology, should be written back into the public calendar.

Polosin, head of the Russian legislature's committee on religion. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 6, Retrieved March 11, The Daily Telegraph.

Archived from the original on May 29, Retrieved April 4, June 21, A History of Denmark. Macmillan International Higher Education.

It is quite normal to go to church on Christmas Eve, and many people like to celebrate a christening or wedding in church. The Church is especially important at the end of a life; by far the majority of funerals are still conducted in a church by a minister.

The United Methodist Church. Retrieved December 9, Christianity Today. Archived from the original on January 29, Archived from the original on December 27, January 24, November 26, Archived from the original on September 14, Italy Magazine.

Stories Behind the Great Traditions of Christmas. Retrieved December 2, The Christmas tree as we know it seemed to emerge in Lutheran lands in Germany in the sixteenth century.

Although no specific city or town has been identified as the first to have a Christmas tree, records for the Cathedral of Strassburg indicate that a Christmas tree was set up in that church in during Martin Bucer's superintendency.

Lutheran Spokesman. The Christmas tree became a widespread custom among German Lutherans by the eighteenth century. The Feast of Christmas.

German Lutherans brought the decorated Christmas tree with them; the Moravians put lighted candles on those trees.

A Short History of Christianity. Many Lutherans continued to set up a small fir tree as their Christmas tree, and it must have been a seasonal sight in Bach's Leipzig at a time when it was virtually unknown in England, and little known in those farmlands of North America where Lutheran immigrants congregated.

Canadian Christmas Traditions. The eight-pointed star became a popular manufactured Christmas ornament around the s and many people place a star on the top of their Christmas tree to represent the Star of Bethlehem.

The School Journal. Christmas is the occasional of family reunions. Grandmother always has the place of honor.

As the time approaches for enjoying the tree, she gathers her grandchildren about her, to tell them the story of the Christ child, with the meaning of the Christ child, with the meaning of the Christmas tree; how the evergreen is meant to represent the life everlasting, the candle lights to recall the light of the world, and the star at the top of the tree is to remind them of the star of Bethlehem.

The same ambiguity is seen in that most familiar of angels, the angel on top of the Christmas tree. This decoration, popularized in the nineteenth century, recalls the place of the angels in the Christmas story Luke 2.

When Santa was a shaman. Paul: Llewellyn Publications , Lowe His biographer, Eddius Stephanus, relates that while Boniface was serving as a missionary near Geismar, Germany, he had enough of the locals' reverence for the old gods.

Taking an axe to an oak tree dedicated to Norse god Thor, Boniface chopped the tree down and dared Thor to zap him for it. When nothing happened, Boniface pointed out a young fir tree amid the roots of the oak and explained how this tree was a more fitting object of reverence as it pointed towards the Christian heaven and its triangular shape was reminiscent of the Christian trinity.

The Christmas Archives. Archived from the original on December 21, Retrieved December 18, Note: This is not the ecard sending option; click on the "Send Now" or "Customize and Send" button above, if you are sending a personal message.

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